Remediation Technology Assessment Reports
Analysis of remedial technologies based on their use at multiple hazardous waste cleanup sites provides information useful to site managers and others involved in remedy selection and implementation. The reports listed below, prepared by Federal agencies and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), contain information about the application of a specific technology or about a common contaminant, and provide summary findings based on practical field experience. The reports were identified using the following criteria:
Address treatment or containment technologies (full-scale projects or large demonstrations)
Based on assessment of performance at multiple sites
Published recently (within past 10 years)
Provide guidelines for technology selection or application at specific sites or design recommendations
Do not consist solely of presumptive remedies, technology descriptions, literature surveys, application surveys, or regulatory assessments
Air Sparging Design Paradigm (ESTCP 2002)
Design guidance that recognizes inherent complexities involved in operating an air sparging system. Core of paradigm is the approach recommended for air sparging pilot studies, full-scale design, and diagnostic testing.
Air Sparging: Technology Transfer and Multi-Site Evaluation (ESTCP 2002)
Presents an evaluation of the Air Sparging Design Paradigm (ESTCP 2002) implemented at 10 field sites. The goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Paradigm and modify it as necessary based on the results of the evaluation.
Cost and Performance Report Multi-Site In Situ Air Sparging (Navy 2005) Newly Posted!
Presents an evaluation of the Air Sparging Design Paradigm implemented at 10 field sites. The pilot study recommended in the Air Sparging Design Paradigm for the Standard Design Approach prescribes a suite of diagnostic tests to assess air distribution. The goal of the study was to determine whether the Design Paradigm was effective in evaluating air distribution and whether other design guidelines were valid. Results from this study have been used to finalize the Air Sparging Design Paradigm, with data collected emphasizing the necessity of a suite of diagnostic tests rather than reliance on one type of testing.
Engineering and Design: In Situ Air Sparging (USACE 1997)
Provides guidance for evaluation of feasibility and applicability of in situ air sparging for remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. As a secondary objective, describes design and operational considerations for in situ air sparging systems.
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Arsenic Treatment Technologies for Soil, Waste, and Water (EPA 2002)
Contains current information on the treatment technologies for wastes and environmental media containing arsenic. Summarizes information on 13 technologies used to treat arsenic, identifies sites and facilities where arsenic treatment has been used, and provides references to more detailed arsenic treatment information.
Arsenic Treatment Technology Design Manual for Small Systems (EPA 2002)
Serves as a resource for small municipal drinking water systems that may be affected by changes in arsenic regulations. It contains background information on the arsenic rule, descriptions for established arsenic mitigation strategies, considerations required to make an informed treatment method selection, and information to quickly estimate the planning-level costs for the selected treatment process.
Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater (EPA 2002)
Identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost. The four technologies included in the report are precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration.
A Systematic Approach to In Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater, Including Decision Trees for In Situ Bioremediation of Nitrates, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Perchlorate (ITRC 2002)
Provides guidance for the systematic characterization, evaluation, and appropriate design and testing of in situ bioremediation for any biotreatable contaminant. It serves as guidance for regulators, consultants, responsible parties, and stakeholders when an in situ bioremediation technology is considered.
Application Guide for Bioslurping. Volume I (Navy 1998)
Application Guide for Bioslurping. Volume II (Navy 1998)
Volume I contains principles and practices of bioslurping to assist preliminary decision making. Volume II contains a detailed description of the bioslurper system, testing procedures, system design, installation, operation, monitoring, and approach for site closure.
Download Vol. 1 (913KB/17pp/PDF)
Download Vol. 2 (8.1MB/167pp/PDF)
Biopile Design and Construction Manual (NFESC 1996)
Details selection procedures and design and construction steps for implementing the biopile technology, which is a method for ex situ treatment of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Manual provides general overview of the biopile technology, followed by detailed descriptions of selection criteria, regulatory issues, design parameters, and construction procedures.
Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications (EPA 2000)
Overview of in situ bioremediation to remediate chlorinated solvents in contaminated soil and groundwater. Describes degradation mechanisms for chlorinated solvents, enhancements of mechanisms by addition of various materials and chemicals, design approaches, and factors to consider when selecting and using the technology. Summary of treatment vendors and nine case studies of field applications also included.
Monitoring and Assessment of In Situ Biocontainment of Petroleum-Contaminated Groundwater Plumes. (EPA 1998)
A decision framework to guide users in data collection and interpretation, and decision-making efforts to evaluate nature and potential extent of intrinsic plume bioattenuation taking place under a given set of site conditions.
Principles and Practices of Bioventing. Volume I (EPA 1995 ; equivalent to U.S. Air Force document AL/EQ-TR-1995-0037)
Principles and Practices of Bioventing. Volume II (AFCEE 1995)
Discusses results from bioventing research and development efforts, and from pilot-scale bioventing systems. Volume I describes basic principles of bioventing. Volume II focuses on bioventing design and process monitoring.
Download Vol. 1 (2.2MB/88pp/PDF)
Download Vol. 2 (1.5MB/89pp/PDF)
Principles and Practices of Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents, Final (DoD 2004) Newly Posted!
Describes the state of the practice of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation. It explains the scientific basis of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation and discusses the importance of relevant site selection, design, and performance criteria for various engineered approaches in current practices. Information provided in the report is intended to help restoration or remedial project managers make informed decisions about enhanced anaerobic bioremediation as a remedial alternative; select specific enhanced bioremediation approaches that are suitable for achieving remedial goals; and track the cost and performance of enhanced bioremediation applications.
Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology Treatability Test Interim Report (ESTCP 2001)
Contains site-specific information that can be used to develop and validate a comprehensive approach for conducting a treatability test to determine potential for applying reductive anaerobic biological in situ treatment technology (RABITT) at any specific site.
Technical and Regulatory Requirements for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater (ITRC 1998) Newly Posted!
Provides technical and regulatory requirements for enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. The report provides information on the design of the EISB systems, amendments that may be added, significant regulatory challenges facing EISB systems, and the components of an EISB project. The components include thorough initial site assessment, a laboratory treatability test, field pilot design, field pilot test, and scale-up design.
Technology Status Review: Bioremediation of Dinitrotoluene (ESTCP 2001)
Summarizes the latest information on bioremediation technologies that exploit the ability of aerobic bacteria to mineralize 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT) to yield energy, harmless minerals, and biomass.
Containment – Barrier Walls
Design of Sheet Pile Walls (USACE 1994)
Provides information on foundation exploration and testing procedures, analysis techniques, allowable criteria, design procedures, and construction consideration for selection, design, and installation of sheet pile walls.
Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites (EPA 1998) Newly Posted!
Presents findings of a study to determine the performance of subsurface engineered barriers to remediate hazardous waste sites and facilities that have been installed through the US over the past 20 years. The study assembled existing performance monitoring results from a number of sites and examined those results in comparison to remedial performance objectives and factors that might have influenced performance. The study provides EPA waste programs a national retrospective analysis of barrier field performance and information that may be useful in developing guidance on the use and evaluation of barrier systems.
Containment – Caps
Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics (ITRC 2003)
Presents examples of flexibility used in regulatory frameworks for approving alternative landfill cover designs, current research information about the use of alternative covers, and examples of approved designs and constructed covers.
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs): Review of Emerging Characterization and Remediation Technologies (ITRC 2000)
Review of three general types of emerging DNAPL characterization technologies —including geophysical, cone penetrometer, and in situ tracers— and two categories of emerging DNAPL remediation technologies—thermal enhanced extraction and in situ chemical oxidation.
Strategies for Monitoring the Performance of DNAPL Source Zone Remedies (ITRC 2004) Newly Posted!
Provides guidance on assessing the performance of DNAPL source zone remedies. Guidance is intended for regulators and others interested in learning about approaches to performance monitoring while implementing various in situ technologies for the treatment of DNAPLs. The report provides information on the ways in which the success or failure in treating a DNAPL source zone has been measured. The report also provides information on performance assessment, performance goals, categories of performance metrics, performance monitoring tools, technology-specific monitoring conditions, and case studies for the remediation of DNAPL in source zones.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Surfactant/Cosolvent Flushing of DNAPL Source Zones (ITRC 2003)
A technical and regulatory guide for those involved in selecting and implementing surfactant/cosolvent flushing of DNAPLs as a remedial action. Describes the technology and discusses the major factors that need to be addressed to select and evaluate design and implementation work plans for surfactant and cosolvent flushing of DNAPLs.
AATDF Technology Practices Manual for Surfactants and Cosolvents (TR-97-2) (DoD 1997)
A report coauthored by the Advanced Applied Technology Development Facility (AATDF) that assists decision makers with evaluation and potential application of surfactant/cosolvent flushing for remediation of subsurface contamination. Provides basic understanding of technologies, their applicability and limitations, and understanding of factors to be considered when implementing projects.
Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) Implementation Manual (Navy 2003)
An implementation manual designed to familiarize Remedial Project Managers, engineers, and scientists affiliated with environmental remediation projects on the major tasks and planning parameters involved with implementing an in situ surfactant flood or surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) project to remove DNAPLs.
In Situ Chemical Oxidation
Technical and Regulatory Guidance for In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater. June (ITRC 2001)
Includes descriptions of three commonly used chemical oxidants and eight case studies, as well as four examples of state regulatory applications.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance for In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Second Edition (ITRC 2005) Newly Posted!
Document provides information on the technical and regulatory requirements of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a group of technologies involving various combinations of oxidants and delivery techniques. The primary oxidants addressed are hydrogen peroxide, potassium and sodium permanganate, sodium persulfate, and ozone. The report also provides necessary information to expedite movement into a consensus on regulatory requirements through the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council concurrence process.
Technology Status Review: In Situ Oxidation (ESTCP 1999)
Survey of sites where in situ oxidation has been used, to help establish basis for selecting and designing the technology; assess costs and performance of the technology at specific sites; assess reasons for success or failure of application; and provide guidance on use of technology, including data requirements.
On-Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience (EPA 1998)
Summarizes 15 case studies on operating experience for completed projects, provides technology descriptions, and makes general observations based on individual operations.
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In-Well Air Stripping
Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Groundwater Circulation Wells (EPA 1998)
Documents recent pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that either treat soil and groundwater in situ, or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies.
Groundwater Circulating Well Technology Assessment (ESTCP 1999)
Survey of groundwater circulating well technology based on demonstrations at a number of federal and public sites. Documents successes and shortcomings of system performance. Assists in developing guidelines for use of technology and makes recommendations for additional data requirements.
Monitored Natural Attenuation
Draft Protocol for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Monitored Natural Attenuation at Explosives-Contaminated Sites (ESTCP 1999)
Integrates available data into guidance that can be used to advise and assist Department of Defense installations as they assess the feasibility of and/or implement monitored natural attenuation as a remedial alternative for sites contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), its transformation products, and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine).
Impact of Landfill Closure Designs on Long-Term Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (ESTCP 2002)
Assists the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program and their Department of Defense technology-transition partners in developing alternative landfill closure designs and management strategies that can enhance the long-term natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in landfills and landfill-leachate-contaminated groundwater.
Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices. Reprinted September (EPA 1999) Pages 1-70
Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices. Reprinted September (EPA 1999) Pages 71-123
Description of practices to be used to recognize and evaluate the presence of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvent contamination.
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Technical Protocol for Implementing Intrinsic Remediation with Long-Term Monitoring for Natural Attenuation of Fuel Contamination Dissolved in Groundwater, Vol. I (AFCEE 1995)
Technical Protocol for Implementing Intrinsic Remediation with Long-Term Monitoring for Natural Attenuation of Fuel Contamination Dissolved in Groundwater, Vol. II (AFCEE 1995)
Volume I presents technical protocol for data collection and analysis in support of intrinsic remediation (natural attenuation) with long term monitoring for restoration of groundwater contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons. Volume II presents results of intrinsic remediation demonstrations at Hill Air Force Base, Utah and Patrick Air Force Base, Florida.
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Download Vol. 2 (11.4MB/183pp/PDF)
Multi-Phase Extraction (USACE 1999)
Provides practical guidance for evaluation of feasibility and applicability of multi-phase extraction for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater and describes design and operational considerations for MPE systems.
Multi-Phase Extraction: State-of-the-Practice (EPA 1999)
This report describes the state-of-the-practice for multi-phase extraction (MPE) of contaminated soil and groundwater, focusing primarily on the application and use of MPE at sites with halogenated volatile organic compounds. MPE is an innovative technology that has the potential to be more cost-effective and to remediate sites more quickly than with use of conventional technologies.
Permeable Reactive Barriers
Capstone Report on the Application, Monitoring, and Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Ground-Water Remediation: Volume I and II (EPA 2003)
This report discusses geochemical and microbiological processes within zero-valent iron PRBs that may contribute to changes through time in iron reactivity and decreases in reaction zone permeability. Two full-scale PRBs were evaluated in this study. Detailed water sampling and analysis, core sampling, and solid-phase characterization studies were carried out to: i) evaluate spatial and temporal trends in contaminant concentrations and key geochemical parameters; ii) characterize the type and nature of surface precipitates forming over time in the reactive barriers; and iii), identify the type and extent of microbiological activity within and around the reactive barriers.
Download Vol. 1 (24.8MB/156pp/PDF)
Download Vol. 2 (5.3MB/145pp/PDF)
Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Barriers to Remediate Dissolved Chlorinated Solvents (USACE 1997)
Design guidance for in situ remediation of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater using permeable reactive barriers. Addresses treatability testing, design, installation, and monitoring of barrier technologies in variable geologic settings.
Economic Analysis of the Implementation of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater (EPA 2002)
This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated groundwater. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations.
Evaluation of Performance and Longevity at Permeable Reactive Barrier Sites (ESTCP 2003)
Presents an evaluation of short- and long-term performance issues associated with PRBs installed at several DoD sites. Assesses the longevity of PRBs made from iron and assesses the hydraulic performance of various PRBs in terms of their ability to meet the desired groundwater capture zone and residence time requirements.
Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance – Revised Report (FRTR 2002)
This document summarizes field performance evaluations if several PRBs installed at sites under the purview of DoD, DOE, and EPA. The evaluations focused on the longevity and hydraulic performance of the PRBs in various geologic settings. The results of these studies are being provided to RPMs at government owned sites to aid in decision-making.
Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Permeable Reactive Barriers (EPA 2002)
Summarizes technical data and lessons learned from profiles of more than 40 installations of permeable reactive barriers for groundwater remediation in the United States, Canada, and selected locations abroad.
Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation (ESTCP 2000)
Reviews performance of previously installed permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and evaluates design and construction of newer PRB applications, such as the one at Dover AFB.
Long-term Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Zero-valent Iron: An Evaluation at Two Sites (EPA 2002)
Presents findings over the past four years at two sites where detailed investigations by the U.S. EPA have focused on the long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). Examines the field performance of multiple PRBs across the United States.
Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions (ITRC 2005) Newly Posted!
Compiles data and information on permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) that have been generated over the last 10 years of technology development and research, and provides information on non-iron based reactive media that can be used in PRBs. The report also provides an update on a developing technology related to PRBs in which source zone contamination is treated with iron-based reactive media. The report compares the cost of PRBs systems to other technologies and provides site-specific examples of PRB system costs.
Draft Protocol for Controlling Contaminated Groundwater by Phytostabilization (AFCEE 1999)
Discusses planning and implementation of phytostabilization, preliminary site screening, system design and plant establishment, operation and maintenance of system, documentation, verification of performance and project completion.
Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites (ESTCP 2004) Newly Posted!
Provides information on the field demonstrations of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation of three petroleum, oils, and lubricants sites located in Alaska. The demonstrations evaluated the use of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation in northern regions where low temperatures, site inaccessibility, permafrost, and freeze-thaw cycles limit or prevent the cost-effective application of traditional technologies and emerging innovative technologies. Results demonstrated statistically significant plant effects for specific petroleum fractions.
Phytoremediation Decision Tree (ITRC 1999)
A tool that can be used to determine if phytoremediation has the ability to be effective at a given site. It is designed to complement existing phytoremediation documents, and it allows the user to take basic information from a specific site and, through a flowchart layout, decide if phytoremediation is feasible at that site.
Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater at Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA 2001)
Focuses on processes and applications of phytoremediation at hazardous waste sites. Addresses application of the technology to sediments, groundwater, surface water, and wastewater.
Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document (ITRC 2001)
Provides technical and regulatory guidance to help regulators understand, evaluate, and make informed decisions on phytotechnology proposals. This document includes a description of phytotechnologies, regulatory and policy issues, technical requirements for phytotechnologies, stakeholder concerns, case studies, and technical references.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands (ITRC 2003) Newly Posted!
Provides technical and regulatory guidance to help regulators, industry, consultants, and technology vendors understand, evaluate, and make informed decisions about the use of constructed treatment wetland systems. The report also documents a number of current successful treatment systems and demonstrates the maturity of the technology in many emerging applications.
Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)
Analysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction (EPA 1997)
Engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for soil vapor extraction: air sparging, dual-phase extraction, directional drilling, pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, and thermal enhancement. Also offers evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions, cost and performance information, list of vendors specializing in technologies, discussion of relative strengths and limitations of technologies, recommendations when considering enhancements, and extensive references.
Engineering and Design: Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioventing (USACE 2002)
Provides practical guidance for the design and operation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) systems. Deals with all aspects of the engineering of SVE/BV systems, including site characterization, technology selection, bench- and pilot-scale testing, design, installation, operation, and closure.
Soil Washing Through Separation/Solubilization: Guide Specification for Construction (USACE 1999)
This guide specification covers the requirements for removal of heavy metals/inorganics, organics, and radioactive wastes by water-based soil washing.
Technical and Regulatory Guidelines for Soil Washing (ITRC 1997)
Focuses on technical and regulatory issues associated with implementation of soil washing technology at sites contaminated with metals. The document provides guidelines to facilitate the deployment of soil washing technologies by users and regulators.
In Situ Stabilization/In-place Inactivation. December (ITRC 1997)
This document describes in situ stabilization/in-place inactivation as an emerging technology for the remediation of metals in soil. It is one of three separate status reports on technologies for treatment of metals in soils and potential regulatory issues associated with their use. It outlines several case studies and identifies future research and development needs.
Technical Requirements for On-Site Low Temperature Thermal Desorption of Non-Hazardous Soils Contaminated with Petroleum/Coal Tar/Gas Plant Wastes (ITRC 1996)
Protocol for minimum technical requirements to treat non-hazardous soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants, coal tar, and other manufactured gas plant contaminants. The document deals with contaminants including gasoline, mineral spirits, kerosene, jet fuel, fuel oil, crude oil and cutting oil, coal tars, tar soils, purifier box waste, purifier box waste contaminated soil and a combination of all of these contaminants.
Technical Requirements for On-Site Low Temperature Thermal Desorption of Solid Media and Low Level Mixed Waste Contaminated with Mercury and/or Hazardous Chlorinated Organics (ITRC 1998)
Protocol for minimum technical requirements to treat solid media and certain low level radioactive mixed wastes contaminated with mercury and/or hazardous chlorinated organics such as chlorinated solvents, chlorinated pesticides, and PCBs, through the application of thermal desorption technologies.
- Technical Requirements for On-Site Low Temperature Thermal
Desorption of Solid Media Contaminated with Hazardous Chlorinated Organics. September
Protocol for minimum technical requirements to treat solid media contaminated with hazardous chlorinated organics such as chlorinated solvents, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls, through the application of thermal desorption technologies. The requirements presented in this document are directed toward relatively small, short term, on-site projects as opposed to permanent treatment, storage and disposal facilities.
Thermal Desorption Implementation Issues: Engineering Forum Issue Paper (EPA 1995)
Identifies issues and summarizes experiences with thermal desorption as a remedy for volatile organic compounds in soils. Issues presented reflect discussions with over 15 project managers and technical experts.
Thermal Treatment (In Situ)
In Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications (EPA 2004) Newly Posted!
Provides information on the applications of in situ thermal treatment technologies for the treatment of chlorinated solvents in source zones. The source zones could contain free-phase contamination or high concentrations of contaminants that are either sorbed to soil or dissolved in groundwater in the saturated or unsaturated zone. The report provides information on the in situ thermal treatment of chlorinated solvents, such as, the principles and science behind the technology; applicability and general engineering considerations; and application of the technology through site specific examples and case studies. Technologies addressed include steam enhanced extraction, electrical resistive heating, and thermal conductive heating.
UST Sites/Fuel-Contaminated Sites
How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers (EPA 1995)
Provides technical guidance to state regulators who oversee cleanups and evaluate corrective action plans. Focuses on engineering-related considerations for evaluating each technology.
Source Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel-Contaminated Sites (AFCEE 2000)
Assesses degree to which various types of engineered source-reduction efforts at selected fuel-contaminated sites have resulted in decreasing concentrations of fuel constituents dissolved in groundwater. Describes methodology for evaluating potential effectiveness of source-reduction actions at reducing the magnitude and extent of dissolved fuel constituents.