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Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix, Version 4.0 4.16 Chemical Reduction/Oxidation
(Ex Situ Soil Remediation Technology)
  Description Synonyms Applicability Limitations Site Information Points of Contact
Data Needs Performance Cost References Vendor Info. Health & Safety
Table of Contents
Technology>>Soil, Sediment, Bedrock and Sludge

>>3.5 Ex Situ Physical/Chemical Treatment (assuming excavation)

      >>4.16 Chemical Reduction/Oxidation
Introduction>> Reduction/oxidation chemically converts hazardous contaminants to non-hazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. The oxidizing agents most commonly used are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.


Figure 4-16
Typical Chemical Reduction/Oxidation Process

Reduction/oxidation (Redox) reactions chemically convert hazardous contaminants to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one compound to another. Specifically, one reactant is oxidized (loses electrons) and one is reduced (gains electrons). The oxidizing agents most commonly used for treatment of hazardous contaminants are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.Chemical reduction/oxidation is a short- to medium-term technology.

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DSERTS Code: N13 (Chemical Reduction/Oxidation).

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The target contaminant group for chemical redox is inorganics. The technology can be used but may be less effective against nonhalogenated VOCs and SVOCs, fuel hydrocarbons, and pesticides.

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Factors that may limit the applicability and effectiveness of the process include:
  • Incomplete oxidation or formation of intermediate contaminants may occur depending upon the contaminants and oxidizing agents used.
  • The process is not cost-effective for high contaminant concentrations because of the large amounts of oxidizing agent required.
  • Oil and grease in the media should be minimized to optimize process efficiency.

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Data Needs:

A detailed discussion of these data elements is provided in Subsection 2.2.1 (Data Requirements for Soil, Sediment, and Sludge). Treatability tests should be conducted to identify parameters such as water, alkaline metals, and humus content in the soils; the presence of multiple phases; and total organic halides that could affect processing time and cost.


Performance Data:

Chemical redox is a full-scale, well-established technology used for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater, and it is a common treatment for cyanide (oxidation) and chromium (reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) prior to precipitation) wastes. Enhanced systems are now being used more frequently to treat hazardous wastes in soils.

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Estimated costs range from $190 to $660 per cubic meter ($150 to $500 per cubic yard).

Additional cost information can be found in the Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Wastes (HTRW) Historical Cost Analysis System (HCAS) developed by Environmental Historical Cost Committee of Interagency Cost Estimation Group.

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Treatment Technologies for Site Cleanup: Annual Status Report (ASR), Tenth Edition, EPA 542-R-01-004

Innovative Remediation Technologies:  Field Scale Demonstration Project in North America, 2nd Edition

Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media, August 2000, EPA 542-R-00-004

Treatment Experiences at RCRA Corrective Actions, December 2000, EPA 542-F-00-020

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 4,  June, 2000, EPA 542-R-00-006

Guide to Documenting and Managing Cost and Performance Information for Remediation Projects - Revised Version, October, 1998, EPA 542-B-98-007

California Base Closure Environmental Committee (CBCEC), 1994. Treatment Technologies Applications Matrix for Base Closure Activities, Revision 1, Technology Matching Process Action Team, November, 1994.

EPA, 1993. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Superfund Site, Project Summary, EPA/540/SR-93/516.

EPA, 1991. Chemical Oxidation Treatment, Engineering Bulletin, EPA, OERR and ORD, Washington, DC, EPA/530/2-91/025.

Mayer, G., W. Bellamy, N. Ziemba, and L.A. Otis, 15-17 May 1990. "Conceptual Cost Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Treatment by Advanced Ozone Oxidation," Second Forum on Innovative Hazardous Waste Treatment Technologies: Domestic and International, Philadelphia, PA, EPA, Washington, DC, EPA Report EPA/2-90/010.

USAEC, 1997. "Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene in Soils" in Innovative Technology Demonstration, Evaluation and Transfer Activities, FY 96 Annual Report, Report No. SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-97013, pp. 77-78.

USAEC, 1997. "Remediation of Chemical Agent Contaminated Soils Using Peroxysulfate" in Innovative Technology Demonstration, Evaluation and Transfer Activities, FY 96 Annual Report, Report No. SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-97013, pp. 93-94.

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Site Information:

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Points of Contact:

General FRTR Agency Contacts

Technology Specific Web Site:

Government Web Sites

Non Government Web Sites

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Vendor Information:

A list of vendors offering Ex Situ Physical/Chemical Soil Treatment is available from EPA REACH IT which combines information from three established EPA databases, the Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies (VISITT), the Vendor Field Analytical and Characterization Technologies System (Vendor FACTS), and the Innovative Treatment Technologies (ITT), to give users access to comprehensive information about treatment and characterization technologies and their applications.

Government Disclaimer

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Health and Safety:

Hazard Analysis

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